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Cannabinoids

by Budtenders Association |

The cannabis plant has more than 420 chemical compounds of cannabinoids:
endocannabinoids (produced within the body)
and phytocannabinoids (produced within a plant)

THC

Tetrahydrocannabinol Delta 9
THC is the most commonly known cannabinoid as it is responsible for the psychoactive effect known as the ‘high’. Enjoyed through various means, when the Delta9-THC is ingested in comparison to smoked in through the lungs, the liver metabolizes the Delta9-THC into Carboxy-THC producing a different high. In addition to its recreational use, THC is also used therapeutically for its pain treatment properties, providing symptomatic relief to adults with multiple sclerosis and pain management to patients with cancer.

 

CBD

Cannabinol
CBD is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid and may instead counteract some of the effects of THC and has been evaluated for its antipsychotic effects. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and neuroprotective proprieties that make it useful for treating health concerns. Its uses vary and the effects depend on dosage, whereby humans often feel more alert when taking low doses and sedative at higher doses.

 

CBN

Cannabidiol
CBN is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is typically found in aged cannabis as it is produced through the oxidation of THC. It holds great therapeutic value through its antibacterial properties and potential through its neuroprotectant properties that were found to delay disease onset in mice.

 

THCV

Tetrahydrocannabivarin
THCV, a cannabinoid commonly found in Pakistani hash, is interesting in how it interacts with the endocannabinoid system: at a low dosage is an antagonist for CB1 receptors, thus not psychoactive, however at a high dosage it switches to an CB1 agonist, thus resulting in psychoactive effects. THCV has the potential to help counter epilepsy as it increases inhibitory neurotransmitters and the potential as an appetite suppressant.

 

CBG

Cannabigerol
CBG is a non-psychoactive cannabinoid that is a direct progression of CBGA, the first molecule produced by the cannabis plant. It has anti-proliferative properties which help inhibit the spread of cells thus making it of great interest for further research.

 

 

Sources:

Izzo AA, Borrelli F, Capasso R, Di Marzo V, Mechoulam R. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb [published correction appears in Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009 Dec;30(12):609]. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2009;30(10):515-527.

Appendino G, Gibbons S, Giana A, et al. Antibacterial cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa: a structure-activity study. J Nat Prod. 2008;71(8):1427-1430. doi:10.1021/np8002673

Weydt P, Hong S, Witting A, Möller T, Stella N, Kliot M. Cannabinol delays symptom onset in SOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice without affecting survival. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2005;6(3):182-184. doi:10.1080/14660820510030149

Pertwee, R.G. (2008) The diverse CB1 and CB2 receptor pharmacology of three plant cannabinoids: delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and delta9-tetrahydrocannabivarin. Br. J. Pharmacol. 153, 199–215

Riedel, G. et al. (2009) Synthetic and plant-derived cannabinoid receptor antagonists show hypophagic properties in fasted and non- fasted mice. Br. J. Pharmacol. 156, 1154–1166